Сочинения по России
Education in Russia. Citizens of Russia have the right to education which is guaranteed by the Constitution. The public educational system in our country incorporates pre-school, general school, specialized secondary and higher education. Pre-school consists of kindergartens and creches. Children there learn reading, writing and arithmetic. But pre-school education isnt compulsory - children can get it at home. Compulsory education is for children from 6(7) to 17 years of age. The main link in the system of education is the general school which prepares the younger generation for life and work in modern production. There are various types of schools: general secondary schools, schools specializing in a certain subject, high schools, lyceums and so on. Tuition in most of them is free of charge, but some new types of schools are fee-paying. The term of study in a general secondary school is 11 years and consists of primery, middle and upper stages. At the middle stage of a secondary school the children learn the basic laws of nature and society at the lessons of history, algebra, literature, physics and many others. After 9th form pupils have to sit for examinations. Also they have a choice between entering the 10th grade of a general secondary school and enroling in a specialized secondary or vocational school. Persons who finish the general secondary school, recieve a secondary education certificate, giving them the right to enter any higher educational establishment. Entrance examinations are held in July and August. Institutions are headed by rectors; the faculties are headed by the deans. One has to study in the institute for 5 years. Higher educational institutions train students in one or several specializations. Moscow Theatres For decades Moscow has had a reputation as a city of theatres. The birth plays of the historic "Bolshoy", "Maly" and "Moscow Art" theatres the city has been and steel is a centre for the development exploretary modern ideas in the dramatic art and is famous for its great number of highlygifted, interesting directors, actors, playwrigts and artists. Every evening the doors of Moscow theatres open to streams of theatre-gowers. The best Moscow theatres devoded themselves to developing the principals of directing and acting laid down by Stanislavsky, Meerhold, Nemerovich-Danchenko, Vachtangov and others. The discoveries and successes of Moscow theatres today exists due to experience and triumphs of preceding generations. Id like to tell you about the Bolshoy Theatre. The magestic building of the Bolshoy Theatre stands in Sverdlov Square in Moscows central quater, not far from Kremlin. This is the leading Russian opera house with the best vocalists and choreographers in its company. The Bolshoi traces its history to 1776 when a standing opera company was organized in Moscow. The first opera shown in Bolshoi theatre was opera "life of tsar" (now "Ivan Susanin").At later times operas by Dargomyzhsky, Serov, Tcaikovsky, Borodin, Moussorgsky, Rimsky-Korsakov and Rubinstein were produced here. At the same time the Bolshoi company staged the best operas and ballets by West European composers-Mozart, Rossini, Weber, Verdi and others. The bolshoi ballet company enjoys well-deserved fame as the worlds finest. This is equally true of its brilliant realistic style of perfomance and repertoire. Moscow Moscow is the capital of Russia, its administrative, economic, political and educational centre. It is one of Russias major cities with the population of about 9 million people. Its total area is about 900 thousand square kilometres. The city was founded by Prince Yuri Dolgonlky and was first mentioned in the chronicles in 1147. At that time it was a small frontier settlement. By the 15th century Moscow bad grown into a wealthy city. In the 16th century, under Ivan the Terrible, Moscow became the capital of the state of Muscovy. In the 18th century Peter the Great transferred the capital to St. Petersburg, but Moscow remained the heart of Russia. That is why it became the main target of Napoleons attack in 1812. During the war of 1812 three quarters of the city were destroyed by fire, but by the middle of the 19th century Moscow was completely rebuilt. The present-day Moscow is the seat of the government of the Russian Federation. President of Russia lives and works here; government offices are located here, too. Moscow is a major industrial city. Its leading industries are engineering, chemical and light industries. Moscow is known for its many historical buildings, musems and art galleries, as well as for the famous Bolshoi, Maly and Art theatres. There are more than 80 museums in Moscow, among them the unique Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts and the State Tretyakov Gallery, the Andtey Rublyov -Museum of Early Russian Art and many others. Moscow Is a city of science and learning. There are over 80 higher educational institutions in the city, including a number of universities Russia Russia is one of the largest countries in the world. The vast territory of Russia lies in the eastern part of Europe and the northern part of Asia. Russia is washed by twelve seas and three oceans. The oceans are: the Arctic, the Atlantic, the Pacific. The seas are: the White Sea, the Barents Sea, the Okhotsk Sea, the Black Sea, the Baltic Sea and others. Russia borders on many countries, such as Mongolia and China in the south-east, Finland and Norway in the north-west, and so on. The land of Russia varies very much from forests to deserts, from high mountains to deep valleys. The main mountain cbains are the Urals, the Caucasus and the Altai. There are a lot of great rivers and deep lakes on its territory. The longest rivers are the Volga in Europe and the Ob, the Yenisei and the Lena in Asia. The largest lakes are Ladoga and Baikal. Baikal is the deepest lake in the world and its water is the purest on earth. The Russian Federation is rich in natural and mineral resources. It has deposits of oil, gas, coal, iron, gold and many others. The current population of Russia is more than 150 million people. The European part of the country is densely peopled, and most population live in cities and towns and their outskirts. The capital of Russian Federation is Moscow, with the population of about 10 million people. Russia is a presidedtial republic. It is one of the leading powers in the world.